There are various kinds of animal tests performed these days to find out more about human diseases and also to find out more about animal health. If you are interested in knowing more about the types of animal testing currently performed, read on further.
The Draize Eye Test is an animal test in which a substance is place in one eye to check the effect it has on them. They are restrained from scratching their eyes and then the eyes are evaluated after an hour and then at 24-hour intervals to evaluate the difference. The three main eye tissues, cornea, iris and conjunctiva are evaluated to see the effect of the substance on their eyes. But this test is highly criticized because of the suffering it causes to the animals and also because it produces inaccurate results.
This is a test where an animal is tested to determine the danger of exposure to a certain chemical by mouth, skin or by direct inhalation. Lethal doses were administered to these animals and they died in large numbers. Today, there are many different tests that have replaced this test. In some tests, less number of animals were used, while in some others, less toxic products were used. In the end of the test, animals are killed so that necropsy is performed to determine the internal change in their organs. Rats and mice are mostly used for this test.
This test helps to assess the potential of a substance that can cause irreversible damage on an animal’s skin. Skin irritation tests determine the level of damage caused on the skin such as swelling, itching or inflammation. Both the tests are performed on rabbits. This test is also known as the Draize skin test and in this test, a chemical is placed on a shaved patch of the animal’s skin to determine the skin irritation. These tests further help to assess the effect of the same chemicals on human skin.
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
In this test, the measure of the rate of distribution, absorption and metabolism is checked. Some chemicals are inactivated by metabolism, while some others become more toxic as they get metabolized. Animals like mice, rate or such others are given doses of test substances through inhalation, injections, force-feeding or through the skin. After this test, the blood samples are taken to find out more about the rates of absorption, excretion and metabolism. The animals are then killed and examined for the storage of these chemicals in their organs.
A mutagen is a chemical or physical agent that has the power to change the genetic information of an organism and also increase the frequency of mutations. Many mutations cause cancer, while some are carcinogens. A particular bone marrow cytogenetic test, the chemicals are injected to the test animals and then these animals are later killed. Their bone marrow is evaluated to find out more about the effects on the nucleus.
These are some of the most popular types of animal testing currently performed.